Health Watch

Health Watch

Publication date
18 Jul 2018
Page Type
Paragraph Contents
Health Watch
Description
Health Watch

AIP赞助了一个以大学为基础的流行病学项目,名为“健康观察”. This internationally recognised research covers over 20,在过去和现在的雇员工作期间和他们离开或退休后,了解他们的健康发生了什么.

Since 1980, 澳大利亚石油研究所赞助了一个名为“健康观察”的独立流行病学项目的开发和运行.

健康观察是一个以大学为基础的研究项目,研究在澳大利亚石油行业工作的人,以了解他们的健康状况. Health Watch tracks over 20,1万名过去和现在的员工在这个行业工作期间,以及在他们离开或退休后. 在这个过程中,“健康观察”记录了所有癌症的发生,并最终记录了死亡原因.

通过比较石油行业不同职位的信息以及与澳大利亚一般人口的信息, 《det365官方App下载》试图提供有关石油工业工作风险和生活方式风险的有用信息. 健康观察研究提供的信息对于确定可能对健康构成风险的因素以及控制这些风险的方法非常重要.

Latest Health Watch Reports

The latest Health Watch reports give the findings in more detail. Available are the 15th, 14th, 13th, 第12和第11次健康观察报告和健康观察病例控制报告(称为淋巴造血癌和澳大利亚石油工业中的苯接触), Technical Report and Appendices).

The Health Watch Study has always been conducted independently, first at the University of Melbourne and then, from 1998, at the University of Adelaide. 2005年,这项研究转移到莫纳什职业和环境卫生中心, 它是莫纳什大学流行病学项目和合作研究的领先国际中心.

Participation in the study

健康观察涵盖了所有主要石油和天然气公司的石油行业员工,他们自愿在澳大利亚各地的工作地点参加了该计划. Although participation in Health Watch is voluntary, 员工的参与率非常高,这清楚地显示了该研究对员工的价值. Historically, 约95%被接洽参与的行业员工已经加入了健康观察(包括炼油厂的员工), distribution terminals, 以及陆上和海上的生产基地). The study has enjoyed very strong support from employees, unions and companies and is also very well regarded internationally.

自20世纪80年代以来,该行业的员工通过参与五项行业调查中的一项或多项来参与这项研究(包括最近一项2010-12年的调查)。, using a detailed job and health questionnaire. 这个过程获得det365官方App下载工作任务、生活方式因素的信息. smoking and alcohol) and on health status. 一名员工在完成一份调查问卷后或在该行业工作5年后被纳入队列分析, whichever is later, and remains in the Health Watch cohort for life. 定期与参与公司离职的雇员联系,以了解其就业和健康状况的最新情况.

Design of the Study

这项研究的主要成果是对死亡率和癌症发病率的分析. 这些数据是通过比较健康观察队列中的死亡率和癌症率与澳大利亚一般人口的年龄和性别相匹配的比率进行的.

澳大利亚卫生和福利研究所(AIHW)代表所有州死亡和癌症登记处为全国死亡指数和澳大利亚癌症数据库编制数据. 健康观察的过去和现在雇员的死亡和癌症数据是通过将健康观察数据(莫纳什进行员工问卷或调查时获得)与登记处的数据相匹配获得的.

研究结果发表在《det365官方App下载》的定期报告(最新报告为第15期)和科学医学期刊上. 最新报告调查结果的摘要也会发送给健康观察的各个成员(请参阅下面的员工信息表).

What Health Watch has Found so Far

Overall

Overall, 这项研究清楚地表明,石油业的员工比一般的澳大利亚人更健康,他们死于癌症和心脏疾病的可能性更小, respiratory and digestive diseases than the general population.

The cancer rate

石油行业员工的总体癌症发病率与澳大利亚一般人口的平均癌症发病率没有什么不同.

Deaths from cancer

Compared with the general Australian population, 与全国死亡率相比,健康观察队列中的男性和女性的死亡率约低20%, 男性在所有主要疾病类别中都较低:心脏病(低28%), cancer (12% lower), respiratory disease (24% lower), 消化系统疾病(降低28%)和意外事故等外因(降低32%).

Leukaemia

白血病一直是这个行业特别关注的一种癌症,因为它与苯接触有关.

早期的健康观察报告显示,白血病病例数高于预期. However, 最近的报告,包括最近报告中的分析,证实白血病的危险现在并不比一般人口的危险大,而且正在减少.  已知与苯接触有关的一种白血病类型是急性髓系白血病(AML)。.  在健康观察队列中有18例这种类型的白血病, but this is lower than the 25 cases which would be expected, based on rates in the Australian population.

石油工业已采取重大措施减少与石油产品特别是苯的接触. 苯与某些白血病之间已知的联系使世界各国政府制定了苯的职业接触标准,石油公司已采取步骤确保遵守这些标准.

Asbestos-related Cancers

在健康观察成员中已诊断出49例间皮瘤. This cancer is strongly associated with asbestos exposure. According to Monash University, 其中一些癌症很可能与20世纪50年代和60年代炼油厂接触石棉有关, 虽然也有可能是石油工业以外的石棉接触. 从接触石棉到确诊间皮瘤,可能需要30-40年的时间.

Similar to benzene exposures, 对石棉危害的更大认识意味着在近几十年的石油行业工作, is unlikely to result in asbestos exposure. 最近的《det365官方App下载》报告强调了这一点,与普通人口相比,石油行业的肺癌发病率显著低(比全国发病率低20%)。.

国外一些研究表明,炼油厂维修工人的肺癌发病率较高可能与接触石棉有关, such as through asbestos lagging on pipes.  在健康观察中,与其他所有工作场所的工人相比,炼油厂工人的肺癌发病率没有差异,维修性和非维修性炼油厂工人的肺癌发病率也没有差异.  根据莫纳什大学的研究,这表明澳大利亚精炼厂工人中很少有与石棉相关的肺癌. 

Other cancers & Health Watch results

Compared to the general Australian population, Health Watch results (particularly for men) also show:

  • lower rates of cancer of the liver, lip, oral cavity and pharynx;
  • the same chance as the general population of developing cancer, which includes for men kidney cancer, bladder cancer (which previously had an elevated risk), and cancers of the colon, stomach and pancreas;
  • a higher rate of melanomas being diagnosed in workers in the petroleum industry; it appears that workers in the petroleum industry are likely to have melanomas diagnosed sooner than in the general population; this increased rate of reporting can cause an increased melanoma incidence rate; however early diagnosis and treatment can increase the survival rate and it is therefore not surprising that the death rate from melanoma in the petroleum industry is similar to the national rates; importantly, 黑素瘤发生率并不随着工作时间的增加而增加, time since first employment or time period of first employment, which suggests that workplace factors are not a likely explanation.
  • prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the Health Watch cohort (1072 cases) and there are more than the expected number of cases of prostate cancer in Health Watch compared to the national rates; however, deaths from prostate cancer in the Health Watch cohort are at the same rate as that of the general population; according to Monash University, “这些发现可能表明,队列成员的前列腺癌筛查率高于一般人群,可能表明筛查偏倚,即更多病例被早期发现, 但到了治疗可能会有更成功的结果的阶段。”;
  • 无论健康观察的成员在哪里工作,包括上游生产地点,死亡或患癌症或心脏病的几率都很低, refineries, terminals and airports.

The Health Watch findings in relation to all cancers, particularly those currently in excess, will continue to be closely monitored.

Other diseases

心脏病、中风、呼吸系统和消化系统疾病以及其他疾病(如心脏病、中风、呼吸系统和消化系统疾病)的死亡率. 事故、暴力)的比率明显低于澳大利亚的同类比率.

Effects of lifestyle

健康观察的结果显示,吸烟对早逝的风险有很大影响, and that quitting smoking noticeably reduces the risks. 吸烟人数越多,各种原因导致的死亡率就会显著增加. Combining all causes of death, it is estimated that smoking has played a part in about 1170, or 46% of the 2,563 deaths among smokers in Health Watch.

对于那些低至中度饮酒的人(每周1-7杯), 与完全不喝酒的人相比,总的死亡率似乎更低. Heavy drinking (more than 3 drinks per day), however, remains associated with a higher death rate (44% higher).

Benzene - Occupational Versus Community Exposure

《det365官方App下载》的研究只关注那些在石油行业工作的人. 澳大利亚不吸烟人群对苯的接触远远低于职业接触水平,石油公司一直在努力稳步降低汽油中的苯含量.

The Future of the Health Watch Survey

AIP致力于支持“健康观察”,因为它受到石油公司及其员工的高度重视,是一项在国际上受到尊重的研究. 该研究还为社区了解接触石油产品对健康的影响提供了坚实的科学基础. 出于这些原因,AIP及其成员公司在2010-12年期间扩大了健康观察研究.

Health Watch Frequently Asked Questions

对社区经常提出的许多问题作出回应, 与健康观察研究有关的员工和其他利益相关方在以下文件中提供:

HW FAQs - Common Qs on the Study - 2018.pdf

Latest Health Watch Reports

The latest Health Watch reports give the findings in more detail. Available are the 15th, 14th, 13th, 第12和第11期健康观察报告和健康观察病例控制报告(称为淋巴造血癌和澳大利亚人接触苯…

15th Health Watch Report – Full Report
15th Health Watch Report – Employee Infosheet
14th Health Watch Report – Full Report
14th Health Watch Report – Employee Infosheet
13th Health Watch Report
12th Health Watch Report
11th Health Watch Report
(254kb) Health Watch Case Control Report